Value Chains

The value chains BIVAC addresses
Value chains

Overview on envisioned BIVAC value chains

Figure 1: Depiction of the three main BIVAC Value Chains with regard to the Phytowelt production of Astaxanthin


Biorefinery Solutions BV: Vegetable Residue Streams

On the basis of a desktop study, BRS considered different kinds of cabbages (red & white cabbage, Brussels Sprouts) as promising vegetable residue streams. Also carrots and onions (peels/skins and heads) were found to offer interesting ingredients. Initial research on the extraction of proteins at lab-scale focussing on:

  • red cabbage and Brussels Spruit turned out to be encouraging (stack of 500kg, source: The Greenery), protein concentration 55%
  • Malt sprouts and alfalfa which could serve primarily as livestock feed; several harvests per year are possible and protein concentrations of more than 55-60% purity could be achieved;

The research also made clear that further process optimization is needed – e.g. cheaper and more efficient drying methods, floating bed and/or spraying techniques.

Figure 2: BRS Processing Chain for, e.g., Onion residues

Figure 3: BRS pilot processing plant for bio refinery of vegetable residue streams


Grassa: new mobile refinery, new press and new protein products

Grassa designed a biorefinery process to obtain valuable products from grass. The products generated from the refinery process is proven to be efficient as feed for either cattle, pigs and poultry. By refining grass into several end products for the different feed sector grass is used more sustainable. Nowadays only cattle consume grass, however not all proteins present in grass can be efficiently used by the cattle. Grassa extracts these unused protein using a specifically designed pressing technology and makes these protein available for both pigs and chicken. Therefore, using Grassa’s technology results in more animal protein using the same area of grass cultivation. The created products are:

  • Baled fibres including the resistant proteins (OptiBAAL)
  • Protein (LECker) can be separated from one-stomach animals (pigs, poultry and humans)
  • GRASSA! is capable of extracting fructo-oligosacharides(FOS, indigestible sugars). This is a prebiotic which can supply extra feed to good bacteria of the intestinal flora.

The extended knowledge and practice for grass refinery is now being explored by Grassa to be applied with vegetable waste stream in order to create value and return it to the food chain. When vegetables are produced or processed a lot of material stays unused, think of leaves, stems and rest material after cutting. This is high quality biomass and contains high quality fibre, proteins and carbohydrate that can easily be used in other food processes if the right refinery technology is applied. Within BIVAC we are redesigning our process and testing several source materials to create a higher sustainable value.

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Figure 4: Grassa! New protein products

Figure 5: New Grassa! Mobile refinery


  • Capacity in 2018 to 2 T/h
  • Suitable for residual waste from nature and water management
  • Demo for culture grass
  • With capacity of 4 T/h suitable for pasture grass

Stand alone:

  • Vegetables: The scale has been proven small machine
  • High number of running hours > 6000 h/annum
  • Food grade!
  • Proof of Concept in 2018


NewFoss: New Silage-Hub for vegetable residues

In the Limburg Region and Eastern part of North-Brabant, large volumes of rest streams from pea, carrot and leek production are accumulating within short timespans during Summer. The largest one is the pea rest stream. Therefore it had been decided to build a major silage-hub for about 20 tons in late Summer 2018. Tests with this material have been conducted at the end of 2018 at the pilot refinery of BTC at Villa Flora.

Figure 6: Value chain options based sugar beets, pea and grass residue streams


Phytowelt: Processing chains

Figure 7: Phytowelt integrated flow chart for the production of proteins, high value compounds and Astaxanthin

Figure 8: Astaxanthin business case development with regard to global market perspective